The Congruency Sequence Effect(CSE): A Review of Data Analysis Methods


  • Stephen Kuriakose Eötvös Loránd University


This project plans a literature review to investigate the data analysis methods used to study the Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE). The CSE is a phenomenon where processing congruent stimuli, like word-picture pairs with matching meanings, becomes easier after encountering similar stimuli in sequence [1]. While the CSE is well-established, the underlying mechanisms that cause this processing advantage are still debated. Analyzing recent data analysis methods is crucial to understanding how CSE is measured and characterized [2]. This review will shed light on the strengths and limitations of current methodologies, potentially revealing areas for improvement and guiding future research directions. The main question this review aims to answer is: What data analysis methods are currently used to investigate the CSE, and how can a critical evaluation of these methods inform future research on the underlying mechanisms of the CSE?

To answer this question, researchers will systematically search academic databases using keywords like "congruency sequence effect," "data analysis," and "cognitive processing." Studies published after 2020 that investigate CSE and employ various data analysis techniques will be meticulously reviewed. The review is expected to reveal a diverse range of data analysis methods used to study CSE, including reaction time analysis, accuracy analysis, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), pupillometry, and computational modeling [1], [2].

By critically evaluating existing data analysis methods, this review will identify the most common and innovative techniques used in recent CSE research. It will assess the strengths and limitations of each method, highlighting potential areas for improvement. The review will also gain insights into the current trends and future directions in CSE research methodology. This project's findings will contribute to a deeper understanding of how researchers analyze data to identify and characterize the CSE. By critically evaluating existing methods, we can pave the way for the development of even more powerful analytical techniques to explore this intriguing cognitive phenomenon.


[1] McLaughlin, D.J. et al. (2023) “Sequence effects and speech processing: Cognitive load for speaker-switching within and across accents”, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 31(1), pp. 176–186. doi:10.3758/s13423-023-02322-1.

[2] Luo, C. and Proctor, R.W. (2022) “A diffusion model for the congruency sequence effect”, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 29(6), pp. 2034–2051. doi:10.3758/s13423-022-02119-8.